Emotions flow from the most primitive division of the mind — ego. It requires a certain amount of sophisticated intellect to rise above primitive ego/emotions. For instance their is the ego driven instinct that makes productive group action possible — the tribal instinct. The negative offset to the tribal instinct is hatred and fear of the “other.” Without some reasonably developed intellect there is no way to rise above the negative offset, leading to all sort of mayhem from murder to all out war. Fundamentalism, the bane of mankind, is composed of those devoid of intellect.

Mr. Ridgway is the author of the highly controversial book, “A Quick Look at the Essence of Man and His Universe.”

Jim Ridgway, Jr. military writer — author of the American Civil War classic, “Apprentice Killers: The War of Lincoln and Davis.” Christmas gift, yes!

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